The International Court of Justice was established in 1945 as the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. The Court has a twofold role: first, to settle legal disputes submitted to it by States, in accordance with international law; second, to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by United Nations organs and agencies of the system.

The Model Courts of Justice will go back in time to simulate a landmark case of international law: Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua. The background of the dispute was entrenched in the periodic policy of the United States in Central America, in particular, the anti-communist interventionism during the Cold War which found its ultimate expression in the ‘Reagan doctrine’ in the 1980s.

A case that had come before the court up to that time, has never covered such rich content/issues of international law. The case is a pioneer case in interpreting numerous concepts, including the use of force, self-preservation, collective self-defense, intervention, and sovereignty, as well as the law of procedure.